CHEM07008 2019 Spectroscopy and Atomic Spectrometry for Forensic Analysts
The aims of this module are to provide a theoretical and practical introduction to a range of modern instrumental analytical techniques based on spectroscopy and atomic spectrometry and used for forensic analysis. The course will emphasise the forensic application of these techniques, sample preparation, quality control and the interpretation of analytical data from these instruments.
On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;
Explain the fundamental features of the following spectrometric techniques: molecular ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy; atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy.
Contrast the analytical features (including applications and limitations, etc.) of the following techniques: molecular ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy; atomic absorption spectrometry; atomic emission spectrometry; infrared spectroscopy.
Prepare forensic samples for analysis and operate flame photometers, atomic absorption spectrometers, ultraviolet visible spectrophotometers and infrared spectrometers.
Record data and maintain records of analytical work in a laboratory notebook in a format required by Good Laboratory Practice and ISO17025.
Write experimental reports and evaluate scientific data including the reliability of analytical data using simple statistical and quality control techniques.
Teaching and Learning Strategies
This module will be delivered fulltime (or part-time for online modules). This will include lectures, problem based learning (PBL) and laboratory practicals augmented by independent learning and directed learning. This approach is expected to address student learning needs. Moodle will be used as a repository of educational resources and as a means of assessment (e.g. quizzes, uploading assignments and journals referemces). Self-assessment tests and other forms of formative assessment are provided to students to check their own progress towards achieving the learning outcomes of the module and to motivate learning.
Module Assessment Strategies
This module is 50% Continuous Assessment and 50 % Final exam. The continuous assessment will include the following elements: formative assessment through preparation of assignments for discussion at workshops and through pre-laboratory assignments for which answers are given in advance; written assessment around mid- semester (5%);workshop assignments (5%); weekly pre-laboratory assignments(10%); assessment of practical laboratory work and of laboratory reports (30%)
The student must reach an assigned gate (mark) in the final exam and achieve 40% overall to pass the subject.
Repeat Continuous Assessment and/or Final Exam
1. Explain the fundamental features of the following spectrometric techniques: molecular ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy; atomic absorption and atomic emission spectroscopy; infrared spectroscopy.
Introduction to spectroscopy: Properties of electromagnetic radiation. Origin of vibrational, rotational, atomic and molecular energy levels and spectra. Origin of line, band and continuum spectra.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard describe the application and theory relating to a the range of analytical techniques that are available to the forensic scientist, understand the parameters involved in method selection and be able to provide a forensic strategy and an analytical strategy for a given scenario.
2. Contrast the analytical features (including applications and limitations, etc.) of the following techniques: molecular ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy; atomic absorption spectrometry; atomic emission spectrometry; infrared spectroscopy.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard it is important to demonstrate an understanding of the theory relating range of analytical procedures, specifically within the forensic context.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard demonstrate competence in operating a range of modern analytical instruments and be conversant with the use of related computer software.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard for principal laboratory equipment used in forensic science explain in reasonable detail and usually from a comparative perspective, the principles of operation, calibration (incl. controls and reference standards), specificity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. In addition utility, effectiveness and efficiency in terms of materials, time, and cost when applied in a forensic context. Practicals to incorporate deliberate errors to further challenge the student
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard demonstrate an aware ness of alternative and emerging technologies e.g. ICP-MS, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence
Ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy: Instrumentation, qualitative and quantitative forensic analysis applications, Beer's law and interferences and deviations from Beer's law.
Flame emission and flame atomic absorption spectrometry(FAAS): Spectral sources, flame types, sample introduction systems, detection and readout systems.
Electrothermal vapourisation atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS): Description and optimisation of instrumentation
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Interpretation of infrared spectra of organic compounds. Quantitative infrared spectrometry. Infrared spectra of trace forensic materials.
3. Prepare forensic samples for analysis and operate flame photometers, atomic absorption spectrometers, ultraviolet visible spectrophotometers and infrared spectrometers.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard demonstrate an understanding of safe working practices (personal safety, safety of team members and others present) and the function and practice of quality assurance; validation and peer review. The basic PPE requirements and anti-contamination should be implemented including development of an awareness of appropriate risk assessment.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard it is important to develop practical skills relating range of analytical procedures (including reinforcement of basic skills such as pipetting) , specifically within the forensic context.
Sample and standard preparation techniques infrared, uv-visible and atomic spectrometric analysis
Application of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and diffuse reflectance/integrating sphere accessories for infrared.
Preparation of forensic samples for infrared analysis (liquid samples, nujol mulls, potassium bromide disks, attenuated total reflectance) and collection of spectra
4. Record data and maintain records of analytical work in a laboratory notebook in a format required by Good Laboratory Practice and ISO17025.
The laboratory course will be integrated closely with the theory course, and the experiments will be of the type shown covering a range of common forensic spectrochemical analysis techniques.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard record observations and experimental methodology in the form of structured notes (including photography) in a logical, comprehensive and contemporaneous manner
Records for the quantitative forensic analysis by ultraviolet ‑ visible spectrometry using Beer's Law
Records for the simultaneous analysis of a two component mixture by ultraviolet ‑ visible spectrometry
Records recording the basic operation and calibration of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer
Records recording the operation and optimisation of a flame atomic absorption spectrometer: records for the determination of method validation parameters (sensitivity, detection limits, reproducibility, linearity, interferences etc.)
5. Write experimental reports and evaluate scientific data including the reliability of analytical data using simple statistical and quality control techniques.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard show the value of making a forensic strategy in terms of assessment and examination: importantly making appropriate structured notes to enable quick recall at a later date are essential
Interpret spectra relating to the qualitative forensic analysis of organic molecules by ultraviolet ‑ visible spectroscopy (pure liquids, solution and vapour phase spectra): collection and interpretation
Interpret spectra relating to the interpretation of Infrared spectra of forensic samples, organic functional group analysis and identification of unknown using computerised spectral databases.
Regarding Forensic Science Society component standard evaluate and interpret data from equipment applied to a range of forensic examinations. Include the use of statistical tests to aid interpretation.
Coursework & Assessment Breakdown
|Title||Type||Form||Percent||Week||Learning Outcomes Assessed|
|1||Class exercises, homework exercises, pre-laboratory assignments||Formative||Assignment||- %||OnGoing||1,2|
|2||Short in class exercises and homework exercises pre laboratory assignments, written assessments, assignments||Coursework Assessment||Assignment||10 %||OnGoing||1,2|
|3||Surpervised data collection, recording and results calculation in laboratory and feedback||Coursework Assessment||Performance Evaluation||15 %||OnGoing||3,4,5|
|4||Continuous assessment of laboratory reports, quality of analytical results, laboratory technique, pre laboratory exercises||Coursework Assessment||Practical Evaluation||25 %||OnGoing||3,4,5|
End of Semester / Year Assessment
|Title||Type||Form||Percent||Week||Learning Outcomes Assessed|
|1||Final Exam Final theory examination||Final Exam||UNKNOWN||50 %||End of Term||1,2|
Full Time Mode Workload
|Problem Based Learning||Flat Classroom||Spectral analysis and calculations||1||Weekly||1.00|
|Practical / Laboratory||Science Laboratory||Laboratory Practical||2||Weekly||2.00|
|Independent Learning||UNKNOWN||Self Study||3||Weekly||3.00|
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UPDATES ON MOODLE
McGowan, T., Analytical Spectroscopy Laboratory Manual and Lecture Notes, IT Sligo.
UPDATES ON MOODLE